Национальная медаль в области технологий и инноваций (англ.National Medal of Technology and Innovation; до 2007 года называлась National Medal of Technology — Национальная медаль в области технологий) — американская государственная награда «за выдающийся вклад в национальное экономическое, экологическое и общественное благосостояние за счёт развития и коммерциализации технологической продукции, технологических процессов и концепций, за счёт технологических инноваций и развития национальной технологической рабочей силы».
Медаль может вручаться конкретному человеку, группе людей (не более 4 человек), компании или отделу компании. Медаль присуждается только американским гражданам и американским компаниям (то есть компаниям, не менее 50 % акций или активов которых принадлежат гражданам США)[источник не указан 2874 дня]. Медаль присуждается президентом США по рекомендации специального комитета и Секретаря Министерства торговли и является высшей американской наградой за вклад в технологический прогресс. За 1985—2008 годы медаль получили 161 человек и 26 компаний и отделов, то есть выдаётся в среднем около 8 медалей в год.
Национальная медаль в области технологий была учреждена в 1980 году Законом о технологической инновации Стивенсона-Уайдлера (Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act). Законопроект поддержали обе партии; он был направлен на поддержку технологической инновации и на повышение технологической конкурентоспособности США на мировой арене. Медаль впервые была присуждена в 1985 году, президент Рональд Рейган наградил ей 12 человек и одну компанию. Среди первых лауреатов были исследовательский центр Bell Labs и основатели AppleСтив Джобс и Стивен Возняк. С тех пор медаль присуждается ежегодно. С 1991 года медаль поддерживается совместно фондом The National Science & Technology Medals Foundation (Национальный фонд по медалям в области науки и технологий) и Министерством торговли США[источник не указан 2874 дня]. 9 августа 2007 года президент Джордж Буш подписал закон America COMPETES (Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science), который, среди прочего, переименовал награду в «Национальную медаль в области технологий и инноваций».
Вид медали был разработан скульптором и дизайнером медалей Мико Кауфманом (англ.Mico Kaufman) из города Тьюксбери, штат Массачусетс, и был выбран из нескольких предложенных работ в 1984 году. Медаль бронзовая, круглая, диаметром в 3 дюйма (7,62 см). На лицевой стороне изображён «технолог-волшебник», на ладонь которого падает луч света и отражается от неё, что символизирует «вход» и «выход» технологии и инновационного процесса. Вокруг — надпись «NATIONAL MEDAL OF TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION» (до 2007 года — «NATIONAL MEDAL OF TECHNOLOGY»). На обратной стороне медали изображён американский орёл, вокруг — слова «AWARDED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO», за которыми следует имя лауреата.
Министерство торговли США ежегодно принимает номинации на медаль. Номинация должна содержать рекомендации не менее шести человек, лично знакомых с достижениями кандидата. Для отбора финалистов существует специальный комитет — National Medal of Technology and Innovation Evaluation Committee, — члены которого назначаются президентом на 3 года. Финалисты должны также пройти проверку ФБР на предмет безопасности. Наконец, Секретарь Министерства торговли рекомендует президенту тех финалистов, которые достойны медали. Церемония награждения происходит в Белом доме.
За их разработку и внедрение персонального компьютера, который вызвал рождение новой индустрии, расширяющей мощность компьютера для отдельных пользователей.
Marvin M. Johnson
For his discovery and development of metal passivating agents for catalytic cracking catalysts which have become economically effective methods permitting refineries to process crude oils with higher metal contents, particularly heavy crude oil types, and have contributed to United States' competitiveness in this technological area.
For his technical, leadership and entrepreneurial roles in the development of commercially successful petrochemical processes which have been licensed or jointly developed and have helped maintain U.S. leadership in petrochemical processing.
For their development and successful demonstration of the numerically-controlled machine tool for the production of three-dimensional shapes, which has been essential for the production of commercial airliners and which is seminal for the growth of the robotics, CAD-CAM, and automated manufacturing industries.
For their technological contributions and leadership in the initiation and development of geostationary communications satellites, significantly improving worldwide communications and giving the United States international preeminence in the construction of commercial satellites.
For his technical and managerial contributions to the development and introduction of generations of jet-powered commercial aircraft which have made the United States the predominant supplier of passenger transport aircraft.
For employment of the concept of the geosynchronous communications satellite systems as the basis for a global telecommunications system, established by international agreement, and for his guidance in the development and growth of the intelsat system, which today services over 150 nations and territories.
For his forceful promotion of statistical methodology, for his contributions to sampling theory and for his advocacy to corporations and nations of a general management philosophy that has resulted in improved product quality with consequent betterment of products available to users as well as more efficient corporate performance.
For his discovery of the herbicidal properties of glyphosates which have had significant consequences upon the production of agricultural food and fiber as well as upon agricultural practices throughout the world.
For his outstanding achievements in the design of a series of commercial, military, and reconnaissance aircraft that incorporated a wide range of technological advancements, and for his innovative management techniques which helped develop and produce these aircraft in record time and at a minimum cost.
Вклад в различные области технологии и в политику.
For extraordinary and unselfish leadership in both industry and government, particularly in widely diversified technological fields which strengthened the competitiveness and defense capabilities of the United States.
For their creative work in developing the technologies and applying computers to real-time applications. Their important contributions proved vital to national and free world defense and opened a new era of world business.
For their contributions to the design, construction and initial operation of the TEVATRON particle accelerator. The scientific instrument was designed to explore the fundamental properties of matter. The innovative design and successful operation of the TEVATRON has been crucial to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider, the planned next generation particle accelerator.
For their fundamental invention of gene splicing techniques allowing replication in quantity of biomedically important new products, and beneficially transformed plant materials. This discovery of recombinant DNA technology has transformed the basic science of molecular biology and the biotechnology industry.
For the development and commercialization of magnetic recording resulting in the creation of a new industry with over 125 licenses producing products such as audio and video cassettes, broadcast sound video, tapes and discs for computer memories, and magnetic sound for motion pictures.
For pioneering the development and commercialization of high-performance man-made polymers such as nylon, neoprene rubber, "Teflon" fluorocarbon resin, and a wide spectrum of new fibers, films, and engineering plastics which have strengthened America's global competitiveness and benefited humankind.
For his management of a wide range of commercial applications of new technology while serving as a senior executive in different industries; and for subsequent teaching and research, as a Professor of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, on the principles of technology commercialization.
Fred W. Garry
For the design, manufacture and commercialization of high performance jet engines that lead the world in performance, efficiency, life-cycle cost, and minimal environmental impact; and for his leadership in establishing a technical information exchange and manufacturing alliances assuring the United States continuing global leadership in both commercial and military aircraft engines.
For invention, development and introduction into clinical usage of the implantable cardiac pacemaker resulting in saving over two million lives. This subsequently led to the development and commercialization of lithium batteries which greatly enhanced longevity and reliability of pacemakers and implantable devices.
For his invention and contributions to the commercialization of the integrated circuit and the silicon thermal print-head; for his contributions to the development of the first computer using integrated circuits; and for the invention of the hand-held calculator, and gate array.
For providing the technological foundation for information-age communications, and for overseeing the conversion of the national switched telephone network from analog to a digital-based technology for virtually all long-distance calls both nationwide and between continents.
For his seminal leadership in bringing American industry the two major postwar innovations in microelectronics - large-scale integrated memory and the microprocessor - that have fueled the information revolution.
For patenting and commercializing over 100 filtration and other fluid clarification products which have contributed significantly to society in safety of flight, upgrading of industrial products and processes and improved safety of blood transfusions; and for building Pall Corporation into a global company with 60 percent of sales outside the United States, primarily in Europe and Japan.
For his original contributions to energy production and policy; for pioneering in nuclear power; for developing risk assessment and risk management concepts; for organizing the Electric Power Research Institute, a consortium; for leadership in engineering education and contributions to a technically trained U.S. work force.
For his outstanding leadership in the engineering profession with special recognition for his contributions to the development and application of advanced management techniques to world-class industrial projects.
For his continuing intellectual and industrial achievements in the field of computer design; and for his leading role in establishing cost-effective, powerful computers which serve as a significant tool for engineering, science and industry.
Geoffrey Boothroyd и Peter Dewhurst
For their concept, development and commercialization of Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA), which has dramatically reduced costs, improved product quality and enhanced the competitiveness of major U.S. manufacturers.
For his development and implementation of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture that significantly increased the speed and efficiency of computers, thereby enhancing U.S. technological competitiveness.
За большой технологический вклад в решение экологических проблем; за инициативы в развитии новых, практических подходов к препаратам по борьбе с насекомыми, имеющих свойства биоразлагаемости и безвредности.
For their development of refrigeration technology for trucks, trailers, boxcars, ships and planes which revolutionized the preservation and distribution of food and other perishables; and for their development of a worldwide sales and service network.
David W. Thompson, Antonio L. Elias, David S. Hollingsworth и Robert R. Lovell
For their invention, development, and production of the Pegasus rocket, the world's first privately developed space launch vehicle, that has opened the door to greater commercial, scientific and defense uses.
Charles E. Reed
For his management risk-taking in continuous innovation leading General Electric Company to world-class production of advanced engineering materials.
For his research on the effects of mechanical force on living tissues leading to safety developments in crash protection technology for automobiles, aircraft, trains, manned space flight and other modes of transportation.
Вклад в повсеместное распространение компьютерной техники.
For his early vision of universal computing at home and in the office; for his technical and business management skills in creating a world-wide technology company; and for his contribution to the development of the personal computer industry.
For his invention and contribution to the commercialization of long-lived plastic coatings for communications cable that has saved billions of dollars for telephone companies around the world; and for his leadership in encouraging minorities to pursue science and engineering careers.
For sustained innovation focusing on the discovery, development and worldwide commercialization of superior human and animal health products while maintaining proper concern for the environment.
Delbert H. Meyer
For his discovery of the process for making purified terephthalic acid (PTA), the key building block in the production of polyester, which resulted in greatly accelerated growth of polyester products such as fabrics, recording tape, tire cord, food packaging and bottles.
For his basic discoveries and management in the field of zeolite catalysis, in conjunction with his colleagues at Mobil Corporation, leading to chemical and petroleum technologies now producing products valued at billions of dollars per year.
For his vision, inventiveness and perseverance in introducing technological
advances in telecommunications, particularly in switching, that have had a major impact on the evolution of the telecommunications industry in the U.S. and worldwide.
William H. Joyce
For his vision and entrepreneurial talents, along with his technology and business leadership, in creating and commercializing a process (UNIPOL) that revolutionized the production of plastics.
For his commercialization of various technologies through the establishment and development of over one hundred technology-based companies that employ tens of thousands of people and export over one billion dollars worldwide.
George Levitt и Marinus Los
For their independent contribution to the discovery and commercialization of environmentally friendly herbicides to help ensure an abundant food supply for a growing world population.
For his contributions to the development and use of computer technology; and for his entrepreneurial contribution to American business.
Walter L. Robb
For his leadership in the development and commercialization of new medical imaging technologies and related manufacturing initiatives both of which have improved people's health and contributed to U.S. global leadership in a high-technology industry.
For a series of technological innovations yielding a wide range of extraordinary products, from pollution control materials to space shuttle windows. For life changing and life enhancing inventions which made possible entire new industries - lighting, television and optical communications.
For his past and continuing technical leadership in the invention, development and commercialization of manufacturing automation systems for a wide variety of industries - most notably apparel - which have made those industries more efficient and cost effective in today's worldwide competitive environment.
For his vision, innovation and leadership in the field of digital wireless communications over the past 25 years; and for his development of Code Division Multiple Access as a commercial technology adopted as a U.S. digital cellular standard providing increased capacity, quality and services and greatly enhancing the U.S. position in the international telecommunications marketplace.
For his groundbreaking work in the areas of affordable 3D visual computing and super computing technologies; and for his technical and leadership skills in building Silicon Graphics, Inc., into a global advanced technology company.
For the discovery and development of a new class of materials-the amorphous magnetic materials-that are the basis of erasable, read-write, optical storage technology, now the foundation of the worldwide magnetic-optic disk industry.
For creating, developing and applying advanced technologies to consumer products which have strengthened the American economy while helping to improve the quality of life for millions of consumers worldwide.
For its many innovations over decades, producing thousands of successfully commercialized products, from the unique optical film that revolutionized the design of laptop computer screens to breakthrough technologies that make possible the ubiquitous "Post-It¨ Repositionable Notes. For aggressive international expansion producing nearly half of 3M's $14 billion in sales, including $1.5 billion in U.S. exports. And for creating 86,000 jobs worldwide, including 48,000 in the U.S.
For his unequaled achievements as a gifted inventor, tenacious entrepreneur, risk-taker and engineering genius in making the USA number one in small gas turbine engine technology and competitiveness, and for his leadership and vision in revitalizing the U.S. general aviation business jet and trainer jet aircraft industry.
For his pioneering accomplishments in the field of drug discovery, commercializing novel technologies for drug discovery and drug delivery; for his visionary leadership in combining diverse disciplines to develop technologies and products to provide a new dimension to individual health and the changing needs of the pharmaceutical industry.
For his vision of American global technological leadership, his tireless advocacy of research and development for economic growth and higher living standards for all, and his energetic efforts to champion the innovative spirit of the American people.
For a century of continuous innovation in research, development and commercialization of products that are critical in the management of disease, improvement of quality of life, reduction of health care costs and fostering of U.S. global competitiveness.
For his pioneering work in the field of rotary-wing flight, his unique capacity for successful technology transfer from defense to commercial use, and for fostering a corporate environment in which diverse technological achievements flourish and new businesses are created.
For her contributions to the discovery, development and liquid crytstal processing of high-performance aramid fibers which provide new products worldwide to save lives and benefit humankind.
James C. Morgan
For his leadership of 20 years developing the U.S. semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry, and for his vision in building Applied Materials, Inc. into the leading equipment company in the world, a major exporter and a global technology pioneer which helps enable Information Age technologies for the benefit of society.
Peter H. Rose
For his vision and outstanding leadership in the development and commercialization of ion implantation products that make possible the manufacture of modern semiconductors; and for his success in establishing and maintaining U.S. global leadership in the implantation equipment industry.
For visionary leadership of the aerospace industry, for championing technical and managerial solutions to the many challenges in civil and defense systems, and for contributions to the United States world preeminence in aerospace
Изобретения в области звукозаписи и их коммерциализация.
For inventing technologies that have dramatically improved sound recording and reproduction, fostering their adoption worldwide, and maintaining a vision that for more than 30 years has kept the world listening.
Обработка данных и внедрение вычислительной техники в биомедицине
For pioneering contributions to biomedical computing and engineering, including inventing the whole-body CT scanner which revolutionized the practice of radiology, and for his role in developing automated chromosome analysis for prenatal diagnosis of birth defects.
For his inspirational skill, leadership, and technical accomplishments during six decades practicing cardiovascular surgery, including performing the first successful human heart transplant in the United States and the world's first implantation of an artificial heart in man as a bridge to heart transplantation; and for founding the Texas Heart Institute, which has served more heart patients than any other institution in the world.
For their pioneering achievements in plant biology and agricultural biotechnology, and for global leadership in the development and commercialization of genetically modified crops to enhance agricultural productivity and sustainability.
Операционная система UNIX, язык программирования C.
For their invention of UNIX® operating system and the C programming language, which together have led to enormous growth of an entire industry, thereby enhancing American leadership in the Information Age.
For its leadership in applying breakthroughs in biology to the development of lifesaving and life-enhancing pharmaceutical products designed to treat large, previously underserved patient populations throughout the world, including development of hepatitis B vaccines, the first vaccines using recominant DNA technology.
For extending and enhancing human life through innovative pharmaceutical research and development, and for redefining the science of clinical study through groundbreaking and hugely complex clinical trials that are recognized models in the industry.
For pioneering innovations in multiple branches of computing, including early efforts in digital speech processing, invention of the first on-line system for interactive graphical mathematics computing and pioneering work on the ARPAnet.
For creating the foundations of personal computing including continuous, real-time interaction based on cathode-ray tube displays and the mouse, hypertext linking, text editing, on-line journals, shared-screen teleconferencing, and remote collaborative work. More than any other person, he created the personal computing component of the computer revolution.
For inventions that have advanced medical care worldwide, and for innovative and imaginative leadership in awakening America to the excitement of science and technology. At age 49 this self-made inventor has founded three medical device companies and earned more than 100 U.S. and foreign patents. And he still has found time to start and run a national youth organization and robotics competition to catch young imaginations and start their inventive potential humming.
For his basic discoveries and inventions in the field of metallocene catalysis which have revolutionized the production of polyethylene and polypropylene plastics, thereby enhancing American leadership and stimulating the growth of the entire industry.
For his leadership in the field of communication systems; for pioneering contributions that transformed TV from analog to digital, enabling numerous integrated circuits, systems and services in broadcast TV, CATV, DBS, HDTV, and multimedia over the Internet; and for technical expertise and leadership, which have kept Bell Labs at the forefront in communications technology.
For pioneering achievements that led to the development of the biotechnology industry, to the first recombinant interferons for the therapy of cancers, leukemias, viral diseases such as hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis, to fundamental technologies leading to other biotherapeutics; and for basic scientific discoveries in chemistry, biochemistry, genetic engineering and molecular biology from protein biosynthesis to receptors and cell signaling.
For his pioneeriong role in the research and development of compound semiconductor materials and devices; for the invention and development of technologically and commercially important compound semiconductor heterojunction materials, processes, and related devices, such as light-emitting diodes, lasers, ultra-fast transistors, and solar cells.
For leadership in science and technology, for the vision to create great science and innovative technology in the chemical industry, and for the positive impact that commercialization of this technology has had on society.
Calvin H. Carter
For his exceptional contributions to the development of silicon carbide wafers, leading to new industries in wide bandgap semiconductors and enabling other new industries in efficient blue, green, and white light, full-color displays, high-power solid-state microwave amplifiers, more efficient/compact power supplies, higher efficiency power distribution/transmission systems, and gemstones.
For his research, development, and commercialization of automotive exhaust catalyst technology, shaping the industry from its very beginning and continually pushing to improve the quality of the air we breathe. Also for leading the automotive industry in ensuring the judicious use of precious metals, including conservation measures such as recycling of spent converters and technological advances in precious metal utilization.
For his pioneering contributions to microelectronics that include spearheading the development of tools and techniques for modern integrated-circuit design, laying the foundation for fabless semiconductor companies, catalyzing the electronic-design automation field, training generations of engineers that have made the United States the world leader in microelectronics technology, and founding more than twenty companies.
For the invention, application to automobiles, and commercialization of the three-way catalytic converter. Through their persistent efforts, this technology is the key emission-control component in all new light-duty vehicles in the United States and throughout the world.
For contributions to the development and commercialization of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, with applications to digital displays, consumer electronics, automotive lighting, traffic signals, and general illumination.
For his seminal contributions to engineering research and education and for pioneering ultrasonic methods for the detection of cracks and corrosion in aircraft, leading to improved safety for aircraft structures.
For their pioneering work resulting in the design and manufacture of the cellular ceramic substrate for catalytic converters that enabled auto manufacturers to develop the first commercially mass-produced automotive catalytic converter.
For more than 85 years of sustained technical leadership and innovation for the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries; and for the invention and commercialization of adsorbents, catalysts, process plants, and process technology
For more than 75 years of support of the cycle of innovation, from research to invention to investment, by supporting faculty and student research at the University of Wisconsin and pioneering the transfer of university ideas to U.S. businesses.
For his groundbreaking and pioneering creation, development and commercialization of interactive video games, which spawned related uses, applications, and mega-industries in both the entertainment and education realms.
For the development and commercialization of new blood- testing technologies and systems for the direct detection of viral infections, including direct identification of West Nile Virus and simultaneous identification of HIV-1 and Hepatitis C virus in plasma of human blood and organ donors prior to transfusion.
For four decades of innovation in semiconductor technology that has enabled explosive growth in both the information technology and consumer electronics industries through the development and fabrication of smaller, more powerful microelectronic devices.
For pioneering efforts and industry leadership in the development and commercialization of aerodynamic, lightweight trucks that have dramatically reduced fuel consumption and increased the productivity of U.S. freight transportation.
For his contributions to the invention of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology and the development of the MBE technology into an advanced electronic and photonic devices production tool, with applications to cellular phones, CD players, and high-speed communications.
For his innovative design and development of roadside and race track safety technologies that safely dissipate the energy of high-speed crashes, helping prevent fatalities and injuries.
Ronald J. Eby, Maya Koster, Dace Viceps Madore и Velupillai Puvanesarajah
For their work in the discovery, development and commercialization of Prevnar, the first-ever vaccine to prevent the deadly and disabling consequences of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children.
For building the world's largest and most successful university research force to support the rapid growth and advance of the semiconductor industry; for proving the concept of collaborative research as the first high-tech research consortium; and for creating the concept and methodology that evolved into the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
For his contributions to electrode design and tissue restoration, which have led to the widespread use of a wide variety of clinical devices. His discoveries and inventions have saved and enriched thousands of lives and have formed the cornerstone of much of the modern implantable medical device field.
For his contributions to national security through the development of advanced, unconventional imaging from space, and for developing and fielding advanced systems with greatly enhanced survivability. He has made a profound difference in the national security posture and the global leadership of the United States.
За новаторский вклад и лидерство в развитии технологии лазеров, оптоэлектроники, интегральной оптики и световых систем связи, которые способствовали улучшению роста оптоволоконных систем передачи для Национальной инфраструктуры связи.
For co-inventing the electric microphone in 1962. Ninety percent of the two billion microphones produced annually and used in everyday items such as telephones, hearing aids, camcorders, and multimedia computers employ electret technology.
For the invention and development of the fundamental architecture for packet switched communication networks which provided a paradigm shift from the circuit switched communication networks of the past and later was used to build the ARPANET and the Internet.
For the discovery of the enzymatic defects in hereditary metabolic disorders such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Fabry disease and Tay-Sachs disease, devising widely used genetic counseling procedures and development of highly effective enzyme replacement therapy that provided the foundation for patient treatment; and for stimulating the creation of and fostering the success of many biotechnology companies that now produce the therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases.
For having envisioned, designed and implemented world standards for real-time, personal and server-based operating systems for over 30 years, carrying these projects from conception through design, engineering and production for Digital Equipment Corporation’s RSX-11 and VAX/VMS and for Microsoft’s Windows NT-based computer operating systems, and for his fundamental contributions to computer architecture, compilers, operating systems and software engineering.
For leadership in the development of the economic relationship of quality costs, productivity improvement, and profitability and for his pioneering application of economics, general systems theory and technology, statistical methods and management principles that define the Total Quality Management approach for achieving performance excellence and global competitiveness.
For fundamental contributions to electrochemistry and bioelectrochemistry and the subsequent application of those fundamentals in the development of technological products that improved the quality of life of millions across the globe, most notably in the area of human health and well-being.
For creation of novel lithographic imaging materials and techniques that have enabled the manufacturing of smaller, faster and more efficient microelectronic components that better the quality of the lives of people worldwide and improve the competitiveness of the U.S. microelectronics industry.
For an exceptional 65-year record of developing cutting-edge aircraft, technologies, and systems solutions for the U.S. Government, including development of unique advanced aircraft technologies critical to the national defense; and for the introduction of operational “stealth” capability that has changed the landscape of U.S. war fighting capabilities.
For his pioneering inventions in cardiopulmonary medicine, including the medical respirator; devices that helped launch modern-day medical evacuation capabilities; and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) technologies, which have saved the lives of millions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other conditions.
For her seminal development of the silver vanadium oxide battery that powers the majority of the world's lifesaving implantable cardiac defibrillators, and her innovations in other medical battery technologies that improve the health and quality of life of millions of people.
For their pioneering technological contributions that were central to spurring the desktop publishing revolution and for their role in changing the way people create and engage with information and entertainment across multiple mediums including print, video, and the Web.
For the IBM Blue Gene supercomputer and its systems architecture, design, and software, which have delivered fundamental new science, unsurpassed speed, and unparalleled energy efficiency and have had a profound impact worldwide on the high-performance computing industry.
For her seminal contributions to diagnostic chemistry through development of dip-and-read urinalysis, which gave rise to a technological revolution in convenient, reliable, point-of-care tests and patient self-monitoring.
For the conception, design and application of the first microprocessor, which was commercially adopted and became the universal building block of digital electronic systems, significantly impacting the global economy and people's day-to-day lives.
For an extraordinary record of innovations in improving the energy efficiency and reducing the cost of gas liquefaction and separation. These innovations have had significant positive impacts on electronic device manufacturing, liquefied gas production, and the supply of industrial gases for diverse industries.
For development and commercialization of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and other power semiconductor devices that are extensively used in transportation, lighting, medicine, defense, and renewable energy generation systems.
For the development and commercialization of pressure swing adsorption oxygen-supply systems with a wide range of medical and industrial applications that have led to improved health and substantially reduced health care costs.
For the pioneering discovery of excimer laser ablative photodecomposition of human and animal tissue, laying the foundation for PRK and LASIK, laser refractive surgical techniques that have revolutionized vision enhancement.
For pioneering contributions to the fields of biotechnology and personalized medicine, leading to the discovery and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and other life-threatening diseases.
For contributions to the advancement of devices for telecommunications, the use of light for studying matter, and for leadership in the development of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) workforce in the United States.
For pioneering innovations in material science that led to the development of technologies in diverse fields from manufacturing to medicine; and for innovative and inclusive leadership in higher education and entrepreneurship.
For invention of novel medical devices used in the treatment of many illnesses thereby improving the health and saving the lives of millions of patients around the world.
Nancy W.Y. Ho
For the development of a yeast-based technology that is able to co-ferment sugars extracted from plants to produce ethanol, and for optimizing this technology for large-scale and cost-effective production of renewable biofuels and industrial chemicals.
For the invention, development, and application of bioelectronics in medicine, including a retinal prosthesis for restoring vision to the blind, thereby significantly improving patients’ quality of life.
For pioneering inventions and commercialization of next generation DNA sequencing technologies, making access to genomic information easier, faster, and more cost-effective for researchers around the world.
For pioneering innovations in microelectronics including reliability technologies, the first industry-standard model for circuit design, and the first 3-dimensional transistors, which radically advanced semiconductor technology.
For seminal work in the engineering of musculoskeletal tissues, especially for revolutionary achievements in the design of bone matrices and ligament regeneration; and for extraordinary work in promoting diversity and excellence in science.